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NRF2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that regulates many target genes including those used in encoding proteins involved in the cellular antioxidant response, damage repair, protein homeostasis and maintenance of metabolic balance.

SFX-01 inactivates a protein associated with regulating NRF2, known as KEAP1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1) thus allowing accumulation of NRF2 and an increase in expression of target genes potentially improving the cellular response to inflammatory and fibrotic challenges.